BG Motor - Drive(DC Motor/AC Motor) and Controller (DC Motor/AC Motor) Popular Science Articles

NEWS    |    Jun 29, 2021

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In a broad sense, it refers to the driver hardware that drives a certain type of device.


In the computer field, drives refer to disk drives. A storage area formatted by a certain file system with a drive letter. 

The storage area can be a floppy disk, CD, hard disk, or other types of disks. Click the corresponding icon in "Windows Explorer" or "My Computer" to view the contents of the drive.


To understand the information in the floppy disk and CD, you must insert them into the floppy disk drive and the CD drive, respectively, for the computer to recognize and process the data information on the above.

Both the floppy disk drive and the CD-ROM drive are located in the case, with only their "mouths" exposed, ready to "eat" the floppy disks and CDs at any time.

As for the hard drive, since it is not removable, it is fixed in the drive, that is, the hard drive and the hard drive are integrated. When inserting the floppy disk into the floppy disk drive, pay attention to the direction. When inserting the 3.5-inch disk, the shaft should face down and the metal plate should face forward. When you hear the eject button under the drive port "click", it means that the floppy disk is inserted.

When removing, you should first press the eject button, the floppy disk will automatically eject a part, and then pull out the floppy disk. Nowadays, fewer and fewer people use 5.2-inch disks, and 5.2-inch floppy disk drives are rarely installed on computers. It is worth noting that there is a small indicator light above or below the floppy disk drive. When the indicator light is on, it means that the computer is reading or writing the floppy disk in the drive. The hard disk drive indicator light is also located on the front panel of the main box, indicating When the light is on, it indicates that the computer is reading or writing to the hard disk.

When the drive indicator is on, you cannot take out the floppy disk in the corresponding drive or shut down, otherwise the disk may be damaged.

A computer may have more than one soft and hard drive, how to distinguish between them? We adopt the method of naming the drive. The name of the drive is represented by a single English letter. A and B are used to represent floppy disk drives, C, D, and E are used to represent hard drives, and optical disk drives are generally represented by the letter H. In this way, there are what we often call "A drive, B drive, C drive, D drive", each computer generally has only one CD drive, so it is often referred to as "CD drive".


In the entire control link, the drive happens to be in the middle of the main control box (MAIN CONTROLLER) --> drive (DRIVER) --> motor (MOTOR). His main function is to receive the signal from the main control box (NC CARD), and then process the signal and transfer it to the motor and the motor-related sensor (SENSOR), and feed back the working condition of the motor to the main control box (MAIN CONTROLLER).



Controller (Programmable Logic Controller) referred to as PC or PLC is an electronic system for digital operation, specially designed for application in an industrial environment. 

It uses a memory that can be programmed to execute instructions for storing logical operations and sequence control, timing, counting and arithmetic operations, and through digital or analog input (I) and output (O) interfaces, control various Type of mechanical equipment or production process. Programmable controller is developed on the basis of electrical control technology and computer technology, and gradually developed into a new type of industrial control device with microprocessor as the core and integrating automation technology, computer technology and communication technology. PLC has been widely used in the automatic control of various production machinery and production processes. It has become one of the most important, most popular, and most applications industrial control devices. It is recognized as the three pillars of modern industrial automation (PLC, robots, CAD/CAM).


Programmable logic controller is referred to as PLC (full English name: Programmable Logic Controller). With the development of science and technology, a new type of industrial control device has been developed to meet the needs of multiple varieties and small batch production.

1. The field input interface circuit consists of an optical coupling circuit and a microcomputer input interface circuit, which functions as the input channel of the interface interface between the PLC and the field control.

2. The field output interface circuit is integrated by the output data register, the strobe circuit and the interrupt request circuit, and it functions as the PLC to output corresponding control signals to the execution components of the field through the field output interface circuit.

Commonly used I/O classifications are as follows:

Switching quantity: 


according to the voltage level, there are 220VAC, 110VAC, 24VDC, according to the isolation mode, there are relay isolation and transistor isolation.

Analog quantity: 

According to the signal type, there are current type (4-20mA, 0-20mA), voltage type (0-10V, 0-5V, -10-10V), etc. According to the accuracy, there are 12bit, 14bit, 16bit, etc. . In addition to the above-mentioned general IO, there are also special IO modules, such as thermal resistance, thermocouple, pulse and other modules.

Determine the module specifications and quantity according to the number of I/O points. I/O modules can be more or less, but the maximum number is limited by the basic configuration capabilities that the CPU can manage, that is, by the maximum number of backplanes or rack slots.

In 1987, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) promulgated the PLC standard draft as follows:

"PLC is an electronic electronic system for digital operation, specially designed for application in an industrial environment. It uses a memory that can be programmed to perform operations such as storing logical operations and sequence control, timing, counting, and arithmetic operations. Through digital or analog input (I) and output (O) interfaces, control various types of mechanical equipment or production processes."

Structure and product

From the hardware structure of PLC, PLC can be divided into five basic structure forms: integral fixed I/O type, basic unit plus extended type, modular type, integrated type, and distributed.

The composition of PLC:

The central processing unit (CPU) is the control center of the PLC. It is the core of the PLC and functions as the nerve center. Each set of PLC has at least one CPU. It receives and stores the user program and data entered from the programmer according to the functions given by the PLC system program; checks the status of the power supply, memory, I/O, and watchdog timer, and can diagnose grammatical errors in the user program. When the PLC is put into operation, it first receives the status and data of each input device in the field by scanning, and stores them in the I/O image area respectively, and then reads the user program one by one from the user program memory, and presses after the command is explained. The result of the execution of logic or arithmetic operation specified by the instruction is sent to the I/O image area or data register. After all the user programs are executed, finally the output status of the I/O image area or the data in the output register is transferred to the corresponding output device, and the cycle runs until it stops running.

In order to further improve the reliability of the PLC, dual CPUs are used to form a redundant system for large PLCs, or a voting system with three CPUs is used. In this way, even if a certain CPU fails, the entire system can still operate normally.

CPU speed and memory capacity are important parameters of the PLC. They determine the working speed of the PLC, the number of I/Os and the software capacity, etc., and therefore limit the control scale.


The system program memory is the memory for storing system software; the user program memory is for storing PLC user program applications; the data memory is used to store the intermediate state and information during the execution of the PLC program, which is equivalent to the memory of the PC.

Input and output interface (I/O module)

The interface between the PLC and the electrical circuit is completed through the input and output part (I/O). The I/O module integrates the I/O circuit of the PLC, and its input register reflects the state of the input signal, and the output point reflects the state of the output latch. The input module transforms the electrical signal into a digital signal and enters the PLC system, while the output module is the opposite. I/O is divided into digital input (DI), digital output (DO), analog input (AI), analog output (AO) and other modules.

Communication Interface

The main function of the communication interface is to realize data exchange (communication) between PLC and external equipment. The communication interface has various forms, the most basic are standard serial interfaces such as UBS, RS-232, RS-422/RS-485, etc. It can be connected by multi-core cable, twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical cable, etc.

Power supply

The PLC power supply provides working power for the PLC circuit, which plays a very important role in the entire system. A good and reliable power supply system is the most basic guarantee for PLC. Generally, the AC voltage fluctuates within +10% (+15%). You can connect the PLC directly to the AC grid without taking other measures. The power input types are: AC power (220VAC or 110VAC), DC power (24VDC commonly used).


(1) High reliability and strong anti-interference ability

PLC replaces a large number of intermediate relays and time relays with software, and only a small amount of hardware related to input and output is left. The wiring can be reduced to 1/10~1/100 of the relay control system. The faults caused by poor contact are very large. cut back.

High reliability is the key performance of electrical control equipment. Because PLC adopts modern large-scale integrated circuit technology, adopts strict production technology to manufacture, the internal circuit adopts advanced anti-interference technology, and has high reliability. For example, the F-series PLC produced by Mitsubishi Corporation has a mean time between failures of up to 300,000 hours. Some PLCs that use redundant CPUs have longer MTBF. From the PLC's external circuit, the use of PLC to form the control system, compared with the relay contactor system of the same scale, the electrical wiring and switch contacts have been reduced to hundreds or even one-thousandths, and the failures are greatly reduced. In addition, the PLC has a hardware failure self-detection function, which can send out alarm information in time when a failure occurs. In the application software, the user can also program the fault self-diagnosis program of the peripheral device, so that the circuits and equipment in the system except the PLC can also obtain the fault self-diagnosis protection. In this way, it is not surprising that the entire system has extremely high reliability.

(2) Complete hardware, complete functions and strong applicability

PLC has developed to today, has formed a series of large, medium and small scale products, and has been standardized, serialized, modularized, equipped with a variety of hardware devices for users to choose, users can flexibly and conveniently System configuration to form systems with different functions and different scales. The installation and wiring of PLC is also very convenient. Generally, wiring terminals are used to connect external wiring. PLC has a strong load capacity, can directly drive general solenoid valves and AC contactors, and can be used in industrial control occasions of various scales. In addition to logic processing functions, most modern PLCs have complete data computing capabilities and can be used in various digital control fields. The emergence of a large number of PLC functional units makes the PLC penetrate into various industrial controls such as position control, temperature control, and CNC. Coupled with the enhancement of PLC communication capabilities and the development of man-machine interface technology, it has become very easy to use PLC to form various control systems.

(3) It is easy to learn and use, and is welcomed by engineering and technical personnel

As a general industrial control computer, PLC is an industrial control equipment for industrial and mining enterprises. Its interface is easy, and the programming language is easy to be accepted by engineering and technical personnel. The graphic symbols and expressions of the ladder diagram language are quite close to the relay circuit diagram, and the functions of the relay circuit can be easily realized with only a small amount of PLC logic control instructions. It opens the door for people who are not familiar with electronic circuits, computer principles and assembly language to use computers for industrial control.

(4) Easy to transform

The design, installation, and commissioning of the system are small, easy to maintain, and easy to modify. The ladder diagram program of PLC generally adopts the sequential control design method. This programming method is very regular and easy to master. For complex control systems, the design time of the ladder diagram is much less than the time of designing the circuit diagram of the relay system.

PLC uses storage logic instead of wiring logic, which greatly reduces the external wiring of the control equipment, greatly shortens the design and construction cycle of the control system, and at the same time it becomes easier to maintain. More importantly, it is possible to change the production process of the same equipment after changing the program. This is very suitable for multi-variety, small-batch production occasions.

(5) Small size, light weight, low energy consumption

Taking the ultra-small PLC as an example, the bottom size of the newly produced varieties is less than 100mm, which is only the size of a few relays, so the volume of the switch cabinet can be reduced to 1/2~1/10 of the original. It weighs less than 150g and consumes only a few watts. Because of its small size, it can be easily installed inside the machine, making it an ideal controller for mechatronics.

Future outlook

In the 21st century, PLC will have greater development. From a technical point of view, the new achievements of computer technology will be more applied to the design and manufacture of programmable controllers, and there will be varieties with faster computing speed, larger storage capacity, and stronger intelligence; from the perspective of product scale , Will further develop in the direction of ultra-small and ultra-large; from the perspective of product compatibility, the product variety will be richer, the specifications will be more complete, and the perfect human-machine interface and complete communication equipment will better adapt to various industrial controls. From the perspective of the market, the situation of each country producing multiple varieties of products will be broken with the intensification of international competition, and a few brands will monopolize the international market, and an internationally-used programming language will appear; from the Internet In terms of development, programmable controllers and other industrial control computers network to form a large-scale control system is the development direction of programmable controller technology. A large number of programmable controllers have been used in DCS (Distributed Control System). With the development of computer networks, programmable controllers, as an important part of the automation control network and the international general network, will play an increasing role in many fields outside of industry and industry.


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